Friday, August 7, 2015

UCI Summer School, part 3: Applications of Duality Theorem (Monroe Eskew)

We now turn towards applications of the duality theorem. It is recommended that the reader recalls the notation ($I,j,K,J,\hat{H},e,\iota$, etc.) from the previous lecture before proceeding.

The basic idea is that one uses the isomorphism there:
$$\mathcal{B}(\dot{\mathbb{P}\ast P(Z)/J})\equiv \mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast j(\mathbb{P})/\dot{K})$$
to calculate the quotient algebra $P(Z)/J$ as $\mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast j(\mathbb{P})/\dot{K})/e''H$.

As discussed near the end of the last lecture, under certain assumptions, the statement of the duality theorem becomes somewhat simpler. The first examples will fall into this case.

Special Case: If $I$ is $\kappa$-complete and $\mathbb{P}$ is $\kappa$-c.c., then the hypothesis of the duality theorem holds, $K=\{0\}$ and $J=\bar{I}$, the ideal generated by $I$ in $V^\mathbb{P}$.

Exercise: Show that in the above case, if $p\in \mathbb{P}$ and $A\in (P(Z)/I)\cap V$, then

A further simplification will be that we will usually start with a measurable cardinal $\kappa$ and take $I$ to be  the dual to the measure on $\kappa$, so $P(\kappa)/I$ is the trivial Boolean algebra.

A measurable cardinal $\kappa$ has a 2-saturated, $\kappa$-complete ideal, namely the dual to the measure on $\kappa$, and under GCH every cardinal $\kappa$ carries a $\kappa^{++}$-saturated, $\kappa$-complete ideal, namely the ideal of bounded subsets. This motivates the following natural questions, which are the main focus of this lecture:

Question: Suppose $\mu\le \kappa^+$ is a regular cardinal. Is it consistent that there is a cardinal $\kappa$ which is not measurable, but still $\kappa$ carries a $\mu$-saturated, $\kappa$-complete ideal? (Here we want the amount of saturation to be exactly $\mu$).

Digression: does the answer change if we require $\kappa$ to be a successor cardinal?

For the case where $\kappa$ is a successor cardinal, $\kappa^+$-saturation is the strongest we can hope to achieve.

Exercise: Prove using the method of generic ultrapowers that if $\kappa$ is a successor cardinal then there is no $\kappa$-complete, $\kappa$-saturated ideal on $\kappa$.

Kunen showed that if $\kappa$ is a successor cardinal, then getting a $\kappa^+$-saturated ideal on $\kappa$ requires large cardinals much stronger than a measurable, although we won't do this argument here (you can find it in this previous Specinar post. We now return to the original question.

Answer to question 1, if $\mu<\kappa$ ($\mu$ regular): We will use the basic technique of computing the quotient algebra $P(\kappa)/J$ in $V[H]$ using the duality theorem. Start with $\kappa$ measurable in the ground model. Let $\theta\ge \kappa$, and consider $\mathrm{Add}(\mu,\theta)$ which adds $\theta$ Cohen subsets of $\mu$. $\mathrm{Add}(\mu,\theta)$ is $\kappa$-c.c., and under the GCH it is even $\mu^+$-c.c. Let $I=U^*$, where $U$ is a $\kappa$-complete normal ultrafilter on $\kappa$ (here the star means taking the dual ideal). Let $j:V\rightarrow M$ be the ultrapower embedding.

The duality theorem gives the isomorphism:
$$\mathrm{Add}(\mu,\theta)\ast P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\cong P(\kappa)/I\ast \mathrm{Add}(\mu,j(\theta))\cong\mathrm{Add}(\mu,j(\theta)),$$
since $P(\kappa)/I$ is trivial.

If $H$ is generic for $\mathrm{Add}(\mu,\theta)$ over $V$, then
$$e''H=\{(1,j(p)):p\in H\}.$$
$$P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\cong \mathrm{Add}(\mu,j(\theta))/e''H\cong \mathrm{Add}(\mu,j(\theta)).$$
In $V[H]$, $P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\cong \mathcal{B}(\mathrm{Add}(\mu,j(\theta))$, so $\bar{I}$ is $(\mu^{<\mu})^+$ saturated. Furthermore, it is easy to check that $\bar{I}$ is $\kappa$-complete, and $2^\mu\ge \kappa$ in $V[H]$, so $\kappa$ is not measurable. This answers question 1 for the case where $\mu<\kappa$. $\Box$

We might ask what large cardinal properties of $\kappa$ are implied by this ideal hypothesis.

Proposition: If $\kappa$ carries a $\kappa$-complete $\mu$-saturated ideal for some $\mu<\kappa$, then:

  1. $\kappa$ is weakly Mahlo
  2. $\kappa$ has the tree property.
Exercise: Prove (1) of the proposition using generic ultrapowers.

Proof of Proposition (2): Suppose $T$ is a $\kappa$-tree. If $G\subseteq P(\kappa)/I$ is generic, then in $V[G]$, $T$ has a branch $b$ given by taking any member of level $\kappa$ of $j(T)$, where $j$ is the generic ultrapower embedding. Now for each $\alpha<\kappa$, $S_\alpha=\{x\in T_\alpha: \exists p(p\Vdash \check{x}\in \dot{b})\}<\mu$ by the saturation. Now $\bigcap_{\alpha<\kappa} S_\alpha$ is a $\kappa$-tree all of whose levels have size $<\mu<\kappa$. It is well-known (or a good exercise) that such trees have cofinal branches. $\Box$

Definition: An ideal $I$ is nowhere prime if there is no $I$-positive set $A$ so that $I\upharpoonright A$ is prime (i.e., dual to an ultrafilter).

Exercise: Show that if there is a nowhere prime, $\kappa$-complete, $\mu^+$-saturated ideal, where $\mu<\kappa$, then $2^\mu\ge \kappa$.

We continue with Question 1 with other arrangements of $\mu$ and $\kappa$.

Answer to question 1, if $\mu=\kappa^+$: Start with $\kappa$ measurable with $2^\kappa=\kappa^+$, $U$ a normal ultrafilter and $j:V\rightarrow M$ the ultrapower embedding. Let $\langle \mathbb{P}_\alpha,\dot{\mathbb{Q}}_\alpha:\alpha<\kappa\rangle$ be the Easton support iteration where for regular $\alpha$, $\Vdash_{\mathbb{P}_\alpha} \dot{Q}=\mathrm{Add}(\alpha,1)$. It is straightforward to verify that $\mathbb{P}_\kappa$ has the $\kappa$-c.c., so we are in the special case again.

Note that $j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa)=\mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast \mathbb{Add}(\alpha,1)\ast (\mathbb{P}_{\kappa+1,j(\kappa)})^M$ (We use the notation $\mathbb{P}_{\xi,j(\kappa)}$ for $j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa)_{\xi,j(\kappa)}$). The tail part is computed differently in $M$ than in $V$, e.g., the support is on $M$-regular cardinals. 

If $G_\kappa\subseteq \mathbb{P}_\kappa$ is generic over $V$, then the special case of the duality theorem says that  in $V[G_\kappa]$, $P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\cong (\mathbb{P}_{\kappa,j(\kappa)})^M$. However, $P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\cong(\mathbb{P}_{\kappa,j(\kappa)})^M$ does not have the $\kappa^+$-c.c. since there are $M$-regular cardinals between $\kappa^+$ and $j(\kappa)$. So $\bar{I}$ is not $\kappa^+$-saturated.

Now we could also satisfy the hypothesis of the duality theorem of adding a $j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa)=P(\kappa)/J\cong  \mathrm{Add}(\alpha,1)\ast (\mathbb{P}_{\kappa+1,j(\kappa)})^M$ generic filter $\hat{H}$ over $M$ in a different way. By a standard technique, a $j(\mathbb{P})$-generic over $M$ exists in $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$ (where $G_{\kappa+1}$ is $\mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast \mathrm{Add}(\alpha,1)$-generic). This is because we clearly get a generic for the initial part $\mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast \mathrm{Add}(\alpha,1)$, just $G_{\kappa+1}$ itself. For the tail, $(\mathbb{P}_{\kappa+1,j(\kappa)})^{M[G_{\kappa+1}]}$ is is $j(\kappa)$-c.c. of size $j(\kappa)$ in $M[G_{\kappa+1}]$, so $M[G_{\kappa+1}]$ thinks the poset has at most $j(\kappa)$ maximal antichains. In $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$, $|j(\kappa)|=\kappa^+$, and the poset is $\kappa^+$-closed (in $M[G_{\kappa+1}]$, but also in $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$ by the agreement between these models). So we can construct a generic by hand in $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$ by enumerating all of the maximal antichains in $M[G_{\kappa+1}]$. This completes the construction of $\hat{H}$ in the extension by $\mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$.

In this construction, we have that $j(\mathbb{P})/K\cong \mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast \mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$, since the Boolean algebra homomorphism $j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa)\rightarrow \mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast \mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$ given by $p\mapsto \|p\in \hat{H}\|$.  has kernel exactly $K$ as defined in the last lecture, and the map is surjective since the codomain completely embeds into the domain. So in the duality theorem calculation, we obtain an ideal $J$ so that $P(\kappa)/J\cong \mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$. So $J$ is a $\kappa^+$-saturated ideal on $\kappa$. $\Box$

Note that $\kappa$ is inaccessible.

Exercise: Prove that $\kappa$ is weakly compact in $V[G_\kappa]$. (Hint: use the tree property characterization.)

Exercise: Prove that $\kappa$ is not measurable in $V[G_\kappa]$, but it is measurable in $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$.

Remark: By forcing with $(\mathbb{P}_{\kappa,j(\kappa)})^{M[G_{\kappa+1}]}$ instead of just $\mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$ to add the  $j(\mathbb{P})$-generic, we can get a nowhere prime $\kappa$ complete $\kappa^+$-saturated ideal on $\kappa$ in $V[G_{\kappa+1}]$.

Answer to question 1, if $\mu=\kappa$: We will find an example so that $\kappa$ is not weakly compact (compare to earlier results for saturation below $\kappa$), and in fact the quotient algebra is isomorphic to a $\kappa$-Suslin tree.

In the exercises, we will describe how to construct, for $\alpha$ regular with $\alpha^{<\alpha}=\alpha$, a forcing $\mathbb{Q}_\alpha$ which adds an $\alpha$-Suslin tree $\dot{T}_\alpha$ so that $\mathcal{B}(\mathbb{Q}_\alpha\ast \dot{T}_\alpha)\cong\mathrm{Add}(\alpha,1)$. This is due to Kunen.

In the construction for $\mu=\kappa^+$ we got a model (there called $V[G_\kappa]$) where there was an inaccessible $\kappa$ and an ideal $J$ on $\kappa$ so that
$$P(\kappa)/J\cong\mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)\cong \mathbb{Q}_\kappa\ast \dot{T},$$
where $\dot{T}$ is the $\kappa$-Suslin tree added by $\mathbb{Q}_\kappa$.

Now start with this to be our ground model $V$. Let $H\subseteq \mathbb{Q}_\kappa$ be generic. We want to show that in $V[H]$, there is an ideal $J_1$ on $\kappa$ so that $P(\kappa)/J_1\cong T$.

If $G\subseteq \mathrm{Add}(\kappa,1)$ is generic over $V$, then take in $V[G]$ an embedding
$$j:V\rightarrow M$$
which was constructed before. We want to extend the embedding to $V[H]$.

Now $G\in M$ since $M$ is closed under $\kappa$-sequences in $V[G]$. We can extend $j$ to $V[G]$ by constructing a generic $\hat{G}$ for $\mathrm{Add}(j(\kappa))^M$ over $M$ with $\hat{G}\upharpoonright \kappa=G$ (using the standard method; cf the second exercise following previous construction).

In $V$, by duality theorem there are $J_1$ and $K$ so that
$$\mathbb{Q}_\kappa\ast P(\kappa)/J_1\cong P(\kappa)/J\ast j(\mathbb{Q}_\kappa)/K.$$
In this case, $K$ is a maximal ideal since the $j(\mathbb{Q}_\kappa)$-generic over $M$ is already just added by $P(\kappa)/J$. So in $V[H]$, $P(\kappa)/J_1\cong T$.

Now we turn to Kunen's forcing construction. Conditions in Kunen's forcing $\mathbb{Q}$ are normal trees of successor ordinal height $<\kappa$ which are homogeneous: for all $t\in T$ not on the top level, $T_t\cong T$, where $T_t$ is the tree $\{s\in T: t\le_T s\}$ with the order inherited from $T$.


  1. Show that Kunen's forcing is $\kappa$-strategically closed. Hint: the strategy will go by choosing a particular branch through each of the small trees chosen in a play of the game so far.
  2. Show that $\mathbb{Q}\ast \dot{T}$ has a $\kappa$-closed dense subset, and deduce that $\mathbb{Q}\ast \dot{T}\cong \mathrm{Add}(\kappa)$.
  3. Show that $\dot{T}$ is a Suslin tree.


We will do one last application to construct a precipitous ideal on a cardinal $\kappa$ which is not measurable so that its quotient algebra is $\kappa^+$ closed.

Start with $\kappa$ measurable and $2^\kappa>\kappa^+$. We will use the Easton support iteration $\langle \mathbb{P}_\alpha,\dot{\mathbb{Q}}_\alpha:\alpha<\kappa\rangle$, where $\dot{\mathbb{Q}}_\alpha=\dot{\mathrm{Add}(\alpha^+,1)}$ for inaccessible $\alpha<\kappa$ (and is trivial forcing otherwise).

Then $\mathbb{P}_\kappa$ is $\kappa$-c.c., and forces that for all inaccessible $\alpha<\kappa$, $2^\alpha=\alpha^+$ (this is a standard coding trick that was assigned as an exercise in one of Spencer Unger's lectures here). By duality,
$$\mathbb{P}_\kappa\ast P(\kappa)/\bar{I}\equiv j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa).$$
If $G_\kappa\subseteq \mathbb{P}_\kappa$ is generic, then $j(\mathbb{P}_\kappa)/e''G_\kappa\equiv \mathbb{P}_{\kappa,j(\kappa)}$. Since $M[G_\kappa]$ is closed under $\le \kappa$ sequences in $V[G_\kappa]$, this tail is $\kappa^+$-closed forcing over $V[G_\kappa]$.

However, GCH holds at every inaccessible $\alpha<\kappa$ and fails at $\kappa$ in $V[G_\kappa]$. By a reflection argument, $\kappa$ cannot be measurable in $V[G_\kappa]$. $\Box$

Exercise: Show that if $H\subseteq P(\kappa)/\bar{I}$ is generic, then $\kappa$ is measurable in $V[G_\kappa\ast H]$.