**Duality Theorem:**

*Suppose $I$ is a precipitous ideal on $Z$ and $\mathbb{P}$ is any partial order. If: there is a further generic extension of the extension by $P(Z)/I$ so that if $j:V\rightarrow M\subseteq M\subseteq V[G]$ is the ultrapower embedding from $G\subseteq P(Z)/I$, there is $H\subseteq \mathbb{P}$ generic over $V$ and $\hat{H}\subseteq j(\mathbb{P})$ generic over $M$ and some extension of $j$ to $\hat{j}:V[H]\rightarrow M[\hat{H}]$.*

*Then: there is a $\mathbb{P}$-name for an ideal $J$ on $Z$ and a $P(Z)/I$-name for an ideal $K$ on $j(\mathbb{P})$ and a canonical isomorphism $$\iota:\mathcal{B}(\dot{\mathbb{P}\ast P(Z)/J})\equiv \mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast j(\mathbb{P})/\dot{K}).$$*

So a very general statement of lifting a generic ultrapower map to a forcing extension gives a useful isomorphism for computing $P(Z)/J$ in the generic extension by $\mathbb{P}$. We remark that in some cases, this will be an equivalence.

Note: In what follows, we tacitly identify all of the posets involved with their Boolean completions. Occasionally for emphasis, this identification will be explicit.

*Proof*: Assume (1). There is some $A\in I^+$ and some $P(Z)/I$-name for a forcing $\dot{\mathbb{Q}}$ so that

$$A\Vdash_{P(Z)/I}(\Vdash_\dot{\mathbb{Q}} \dot{H_0}\subseteq j(\mathbb{P}) \textrm{ is generic over }M \textrm{ and }H:=j^{-1}[H_0]\subseteq \mathbb{P}\textrm{ is generic over }V).$$

Note that the set $\{p\in\mathbb{P}:\quad \Vdash_{P(A)/I\ast \mathbb{Q}} j(p)\not\in H_0\}$ cannot be dense, since it is the complement of the generic $j^{-1}[H_0]$. So there is $p_0\in \mathbb{P}$ so that for all $p\le p_0$, $\| j(p)\in H_0 \|_{P(A)/I\ast \mathbb{Q}}\neq 0$. We will constrain ourselves to work below this $p_0$ in $\mathbb{P}$ and below $A$ in $P(Z)/I$. For simplicity, assume that $A=Z$ and $p_0=1_\mathbb{P}$.

In $V^{P(Z)/I}$, define

$$K=\{p\in j(\mathbb{P}):\quad \Vdash_{\mathbb{\dot{Q}^G}} p\not\in H_0\}.$$

Let $G\ast h$ be generic for $P(Z)/I\ast j(\mathbb{P})/K$. From the $j(\mathbb{P})/K$-generic $h$, we can define a $j(\mathbb{P})$-generic $\hat{H}=\{p:[p]_K\in h\}$.

**Claim:**The following properties of $H_0$ are also true of $\hat{H}$:

- $\Vdash_{P(Z)/I\ast \mathbb{Q}} \hat{H}$ is $j(\mathbb{P})$-generic over $M$.
- $\Vdash_{P(Z)/I\ast \mathbb{Q}} j^{-1}[\hat{H}]$ is $\mathbb{P}$-generic over $V$.
- For all $p\in \mathbb{P}$, $\not\Vdash_{P(Z)/I\ast \mathbb{Q}} j(p)\not\in \hat{H}$.

*Proof of Claim:*For (1), suppose $D\in M$ is open dense in $j(\mathbb{P})$. Then $\{[d]_K:d\in D\textrm{ and }d\not\in K\}$ is dense in $j(\mathbb{P})/K$. Otherwise, there would exist $p\in j(\mathbb{P})/K$ so that $p\wedge d\in K$ for all $d\in D$. But this is impossible because we could then force with $\mathbb{Q}$ over $V[G]$ to get a generic $H_0$ containing $p$ (as $p\not\in K$), and then $H_0\cap D=\emptyset$, contradicting genericity of $H_0$ over $M$.

The remaining parts of the claim can be checked similarly, and are left as an exercise. $\Box$.

Now let $e:\mathbb{P}\rightarrow \mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast \dot{j(\mathbb{P})/K})$ be defined by $e(p)=\|j(p)\in \hat{H}\|$.

By (3) of the claim above, $\mathrm{ker}(e)=0$. Also $e$ preserves Boolean operations simply by the elementarity of $j$. By (2) of the claim, $e$ is a regular embedding (maps maximal antichains pointwise to maximal antichains).

**Exercise:**$e:\mathbb{P}\rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ is a regular embedding iff for every $q\in\mathbb{Q}$ there is $p\in \mathbb{P}$ so that for every $p'\le p$, $e(p')$ is compatible with $q$.

Thus, if $H\subseteq \mathbb{P}$ is generic over $V$, we can force with the quotient $\mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast \dot{j(\mathbb{P})/K})/e"H$ over $V[H]$ to obtain a generic $G\ast h$ for $P(Z)/I\ast j(\mathbb{P})/K$. By the definition of $e$, we have $j_G"H\subseteq \hat{H}$, where $\hat{H}$ is defined from $h$ as before. So we can extend the embedding $j_G$ to $\hat{j}:V[H]\rightarrow M[\hat{H}]$.

In $V[H]$ we can finally define $J=\{A\subseteq Z:1\Vdash [\mathrm{id}]\not\in \hat{j}(A)\}$, where the forcing is with the quotient $\mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast \dot{j(\mathbb{P})/K})/e"H$. In $V$, let

$$\iota(p,\dot{A})=e(p)\wedge \|[id]\in\hat{j}(\dot{A})\|.$$

**Exercise:**$\iota$ is order and incompatibility preserving.

It remains to show that the range of $\iota$ is dense. So take an arbitrary $(B,\dot{q})\in P(Z)/I\ast j(P)/K$. By strengthening this condition, we may assume without loss of generality that there is $f:Z\rightarrow \mathbb{P}$ in $V$ so that $B\Vdash [[f]_M]_K=\dot{q}$.

By regularity of $e$ (using the characterization in the exercise), there is a $p$ so that for all $p'\le p$, $e(p')\wedge (B,\dot{q})\neq 0$. Let $\dot{A}$ be a $\mathbb{P}$-name for a subset of $Z$ such that $p \Vdash \dot{A}=\{z\in B: f(z)\in H\}$ and $\neg p \Vdash \dot{A}\in J^+$.

We check that $(p,\dot{A})$ is actually a condition, which involves checking that $p\Vdash \dot{A}\in J^+$. So take a generic $G\ast \dot{h}$ containing $e(p)\wedge (B,\dot{q})$ (which is nonzero by choice of $p$). Then clearly $B\in G$ and since $[[f]_M]_K=q\in h$, we have $[f]_M=j(f)([\mathrm{id}])\in\hat{H}$. Therefore $[\mathrm{id}]\in \hat{j}(A)$, so this generic $G\ast \dot{h}$ shows that it is not forced by $\mathcal{B}(P(Z)/I\ast \dot{j(\mathbb{P})/K}/e"H$ that $[\mathrm{id}]\not\in \hat{j}(A)\}$.

By definition $\iota:=\iota(p,\dot{A})$ forces $j(p)\in \hat{H}$ and $[\mathrm{id}]\in\hat{j}(\dot{A})$. Since $\hat{j}$ extends $j$ and it's forced that $\dot{A}\subseteq B$, $\iota$ must force $B\in G$. And since $j(p)\Vdash_{j(\mathbb{P})} j(\dot{A})=j(\{z:j(f)(z)\in \hat{H}\})$, $\iota$ must force $\dot{q}=[j(f)(\mathrm{id})]_K\in h$. $\Box$

**Remark:**Suppose $K$ as in the Duality Theorem is forced to be principal, i.e., there is $m$ so that $$\Vdash K=\{p\in j(\mathbb{P}:p\le \neg m\}.$$

Then the Duality Theorem is easily seen to be an equivalence.

We can compute some nice properties of the ideal $J$ arising from the previous theorem.

**Proposition:**

*Using the notation of the previous theorem, $J$ is forced to be precipitous, with the same completeness as $I$. If $I$ is normal, then $J$ is also normal. Also, if $\bar{G}\subseteq P(Z)/J$ is generic over $V[H]$ and $G\ast h=\iota[H\ast \bar{G}]$ and $\hat{j}:V[H]\rightarrow M[\hat{H}]$ are as before, then $V[H]^Z/{\bar{G}}=M[\hat{H}]$ and $\hat{j}$ is the ultrapower embedding.*

Finally, we relate $J$ to the ideal in $V[H]$ generated by $I$.

**Proposition:**Suppose $K$ as in the Duality Theorem is forced to be principal, with $m$ so that $\Vdash K=\{p\in j(\mathbb{P}):p\le \neg m\}.$ Suppose further that there exist $f$ and $A$ so that $A\Vdash \dot{m}=[f]_G$ and $\dot{B}$ is a $\mathbb{P}$-name for $\{z\in A: f(z)\in \dot{H}\}$. Then $\bar{I}\upharpoonright B=J\upharpoonright B$, and $A\setminus B\in J$, where $\bar{I}$ is the ideal in $V[H]$ generated by $I$.

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